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Program Summaries

Glimpses of the Past through description, related books and internet connections

Select a year from the drop-down menu below to view summaries of talks


Bill Rathie - Vancouver's first native-born mayor
[January 22, 1986 (VM) Bill Rathie]
Bill Rathie, the first native born mayor and mayor of Vancouver for one term, ran the city on business principles believing that new development had to take place to create a good tax base. He was responsible for the early development of the West End high rises, the Bentall Centre, Block 42-52, the waterfront and, later, as a member of the National Harbours Board, was responsible for Van Term and other waterfront developments.

Art Phillips, former Vancouver mayor, 1973-76
[February 26, 1986 (VM) Art Phillips]
The questioning of a need for a freeway running through the heart of the city caused voters to elect Art Pillips and TEAM from 1968-76. Rezoning to create more pedestrian/public places; the development of False Creek and Fairview slopes; land for parks; and the establishment of the Heritage Advisory Board are a few of the projects initiated during Mr. Phillips' term as Councillor and Mayor.

VPL #4690, Leonard Frank, 1936, Vancouver City Hall cornerstone laying ceremonies with Mayor G. G. McGeer  
VPL #4690, Leonard Frank, 1936, Vancouver City Hall cornerstone laying ceremonies with Mayor G. G. McGeer  

Gerry McGeer, Vancouver mayor, 1935-36, 1947
[March 26, 1986 (VM) David Williams]
Gerald "Gerry" Grattan McGeer (1888-1947) was arguably the city's most flamboyant mayor (1935-36, 1947) dominating his Council. In 1935, he reluctantly read the Riot Act in Victory Square to quell the rioting by relief camp strikers. The following year he personally directed events for Vancouver's Golden Jubilee and for years he fought for differential freight rates of the railways. As well, he fired many members of the Police Department and cleared it of corruption. (see The Greater Vancouver Book, 241; The Encyclopedia of British Columbia, 433)

Vancouver History
[April 6, 1986 (Incorporation Day Wine & Cheese at HH) Chuck Davis]
The need for an “electronic encyclopedia” of Vancouver was proposed. This would give Vancouverites great access to their own history. (see

VPL #7274, Philip Timms, 1910, Louis D. Taylor  
VPL #7274, Philip Timms, 1910, Louis D. Taylor  

Louis D. Taylor - Vancouver's longest serving mayor
[April 22, 1986 (VM) Mary Rawson]
Michgan born L. D. Taylor worked in a number of occupations before coming to Vancouver in 1896. He had liberal political views, sympathy for the working man and egalitarian attitudes towards women. Among his achievements as mayor were: a mechanized fire department, an 8-hour day for civic workers and contractors, the establishment of parks and playgrounds, juvenile courts, early women's suffrage, the building of the Burrard Bridge and the setting up of the City Archives. (see Daniel Francis' LD: Mayor Louis Taylor and the rise of Vancouver, Arsenal Pulp Press, 2004)

Video presentation
[May 28, 1986 (AGM at VM) Leonard McCann]
B. C.'s entry into Confederation was not an easy one for it had to face many issues. (see You Can't Get There from Here, B. C. Provincial Government Education Media Centre; see entry for November 23, 1964)

Wm J. McGuigan, Vancouver mayor, 1904
[September 24, 1986 (VM) Jeffrey M. Swartz]
The McGuigan family played a significant role in the history of Vancouver. Dr. William J. McGuigan, the first city coroner and an alderman for seven terms was mayor in 1904. His brother, Thomas F. McGuigan, was city clerk from 1886 to 1905. (see the McGuigan family collect in the Vancouver City Archives)

Mayor David Oppenheimer - Vancouver mayor, 1888-91
[October 22, 1986 (VM) Doug McCallum]
David Oppenheimer (1834-97), Vancouver's second mayor (1888-1891) was born in Bavaria. He and his brother arrived in BC via the U. S. & the California gold rush, establishing businesses in Yale, Barkerville & Victoria before settling in Vancouver. Philanthropist, keen businessman and indefatigable civic booster, he was instrumental in obtaining much needed boost for the city, persuading the C.P.R. to extend its line west from Port Moody, & initiating street paving, waterworks, & a streetcar system. During his time as mayor, Stanley Park & and the first Cambie & Granville street brides were opened. He died in New York, and is buried in Brooklyn. His bust rests at the entrance to Stanley Park.

Early Mayors of Vancouver, 1886-1900
[November 26, 1986 (VM) Peggy Imredy]
Some early mayors of Vancouver were: Vancouver's first mayor, Malcolm MacLean (1886-87), David Oppenheimer (1888-91) (see above), Fred Cope (1892-93) who died in the Klondike, R. A. Anderson (1894) an early real estate broker, Henry Collins (1895-96) a dry goods merchant, William Templeton (1897) an early Vancouver pioneer and James F. Garden (1898-1900) an ex-intelligence officer.


Parksite 19, now called Barclay Square Park
[January 28, 1987 (VM) Janet Bingham]
The city has 2,846 heritage buildings that have been acknowledged by the Heritage Advisory Board. Parksite 19, now Barclay Square Park in the West End, grew from the rescue of one house, the Roedde House, to retaining eight houses on the block for a visual and lived-in streetscape history.
(see Janet Bingham's More than a house: the story of Roedde House and Barclay Heritage Square, Roedde House Preservation Society, 1996; see also

Gamblers, shifty politicians and prostitutes from “On the Shady Side”
[February 25, 1987 (VM) Betty Keller]
Although early Vancouver had more sports clubs, dramatic and literary societies than most cities today, they also had their share of gambling dens and saloons. In 1895, after it was discovered that Vancouverites drank 30% more alcohol than the rest of the Dominion, missionaries, faith healers, evangelists and the WCTU tried to correct the situation. On the other hand, recitals, balls, and boxing matches were seen at Hart's Opera House at Carrall near Pender and at the more prestigious Vancouver Opera House which opened in 1889. Besides Sunday waterfront picnics and steamship excursions, Vancouverites would row at the two rowing clubs or attend horse races organized by the Jockey Club. (see Betty Keller's On the Shady Side, Vancouver 1886-1914, Horsdal & Schubart, 1986)

Stories from Vancouver and Its Writers
[March 25, 1987 (VM) Alan Twigg]
Before 1950, almost all Vancouver's writers were of British origin and British influences remained dominant until about 1960. Then a number of sophisticated Americans arrived while, at about the same time, Canadian-born authors reached creative maturity. The first novel set in Vancouver was the 1892 Mate of the Vancouver, written by Morley Roberts who went on to describe his sawmill labouring experience in The Prey of the Strongest (1906). He had by then moved to London, making a literary career that produced scores of boos. Martin Allerdale Grainer's 1908 Woodsman of the West, was the first novel of lasting merit.
(see Alan Twigg's Vancouver and Its Writers: A Guide to Vancouver's Literary Landmarks, Harbour Publishing, 1986; see also

VVPL #1090, H. T. Devine, 1886, Vancouver Police Department in front of City Hall (tent) after the fire  
VPL #1090, H. T. Devine, 1886, Vancouver Police Department in front of City Hall (tent) after the fire  

Vancouver Police History
[April 6, 1987 (Incorporation Day Wine and Cheese Party at MM) Joe Swan]
There are perils and rewards in probing the city's police history. Much of Vancouver police history can be found at the Vancouver Police Centennial Museum. (see Joe Swan's The Police murders: true stories from the Vancouver Police Archives, West Ender Books, 1987; and Policebeat: 24 Vancouver murders, Cosmopolitan Publishing Co., 1991)

VPL #7641, Philip Timms, 190-, Sikh sawmill workers in Burnaby  
VPL #7641, Philip Timms, 190-, Sikh sawmill workers in Burnaby  

Sikhs in Vancouver in the Twentieth Century
[April 29, 1987 (VM) Hugh Johnston]
Vancouver's Sikh community dates back to the turn of the century, but, because most Sikhs have arrived from the 1960s, it is also very new. The immigration gates were almost closed, except to wives and children of Sikhs already here, from 1908 until 1951. For half a century, the largely male community remained an isolated fragment, sustained only by visits of its members back to the Punjab and the limited immigration permitted by law. Since the 1960s, there has been a great expansion; there are now (1987) five temples in the Lower Mainland. (see Sarjeet Singh Jagpal's Becoming Canadians: pioneer Sikhs in their own words, Harbour Publishing, 1994)

Mount Pleasant and Brewery Creek 1
[May 27, 1987 (AGM at VM) Claude Douglas]
Pre-WWI Vancouver's first suburb, Mount Pleasant, was transfixed by a wandering stream known as Brewery Creek, so called because of the breweries that abounded south of False Creek from 1888-1912. Hastings Mill, built at Dunley Street in 1865-67, used water from the Creek for its boilers, being transported by flume from a dam at Eighth Avenue and Scotia Street. In 1887-88, two slaughter houses were built on either side of Brewery Creek where it entered False Creek. For this, the creek was dammed above Second Avenue. (see Guide to Early History & Development of Brewery Creek Basin, Mount Pleasant Brewery Creek Urban Committee, 1985)

Mount Pleasant and Brewery Creek 2
[September 23, 1987 (VM) Charles Christopherson]
(continued from above) The first brewery, built in 1888 on Sixth Avenue at Scotia Street and a second in 1892 one block away, still stand today. For this, Brewery Creek was dammed on Scotia Street between Seventh and Eighth avenues and water was piped to a forty-foot water wheel that powered the grinding mill. Other industries were attracted to the area because of the presence of Brewery Creek. (see as above)

VPL #10865, Leonard Frank, 1929, Bank of Montreal at Alma at 4th Avenue  
VPL #10865, Leonard Frank, 1929, Bank of Montreal at Alma at 4th Avenue  

A Look at the History of Vancouver through Architectural Style
[October 28, 1987 (VM) Jim Bezanson]
Vancouver's history can be traced through its architectural styles. Chalmer's Church at 12th and Hemlock represents the Georgian period. The Second Reaissance style can be seen in Hycroft and Shannon. The Beaux Arts can be seen in Heritage Hall at Main and 14th and in the Sun Tower. The Gothic style can be found in Vancouver's older churches, while Richardsonian Romanesque can be seen in the Lyric Theatre. The Hotel Vancouver, completed in 1939, is the only example of Chateau style. Many early houses, (1886-94) are in the Queen Anne style. The Tudor style, prevalent in Shaughnessy, was followed by Arts and Crafts. Art Deco buildings are the Marine Building and the Georgia Medical and Dental Building. (see

VPL #10975, Leonard Frank, 1935, Vancouver Breweries Ltd. at 11th and Yew  
VPL #10975, Leonard Frank, 1935, Vancouver Breweries Ltd. at 11th and Yew  

Union Labels, Boycotts and Beer: 100 Years of Organizing the Brewing Industry in British Columbia
[November 25, 1987 (VM) Elaine Bernard]
Because of mass production requiring fewer workers, the craft of beer making fell into the hands of management and the brew master. The workers, their position threatened by low skill requirements, were among the first to organize. Prohibition had a devastating effect on the industry and in the United States sped up the consolidation process. In Canada the imposition of tariffs among the provinces meant that strongly based regional breweries were maintained. Today, the social mission of the environmentalist, consumer demand for more choice, and worker concern for jobs has created new worker alliances.


Henry Spencer Palmer, Royal Engineer
[January 27, 1988 (VM) Frances Woodward]
India born Henry Spencer Palmer (1838-93) was a member of the Royal Engineers when he arrived in New Westminster with Colonel R. C. Moody in 1859. While in BC, he helped survey routes and rivers and record facts about native life and gold mining. He left in 1863, surveying England, the Sinai, New Zealand, Barbados and Hong Kong before settling in Japan in 1882. There he designed the Yokohama waterworks. In B. C., a mountain, creek and lake were named after him. (see;

VPL #4969, Philip Timms, 19--, carved wooden box  
VPL #4969, Philip Timms, 19--, carved wooden box  

Giving It All Away BC's Indians and the Law Against Potlatching
[February 25, 1988 (VM) Douglas Cole & Ira Chaikin]
In the history of the Canadian law against the potlatch, the natives won as often as they lost. For every action by the Canadian government in arresting those holding potlatches, there were counter-actions by the courts or new Indian stratagems. By the 1930's the law went unenforced and was dropped finally from the statues only in 1951. (see Douglas Cole's An iron hand upon the people: the law against the Potlatch on the Northwest Coast, Douglas & McIntyre, 1990; see also

Historical Atlas of Vancouver
[March 28, 1988 (VM) Bruce Macdonald]
In the story of Vancouver in maps, a series of maps depicts the Vancouver area beginning with a geological map and then maps for each decade from 1860 showing representative architecture, economic growth, prominent people, and relevant information. Additional maps show the social and cultural character of the city. (see Bruce Macdonald's Vancouver: a visual history, Talonbooks, 1992; Derek Hayes' Historical Atlas of Vancouver and the Lower Fraser Valley, Douglas & McIntyre, 2005)

[April 6, 1988 (Incorporation Day Dinner at Hycroft]
(a variety of speakers)

VPL #5396, Philip Timms, 190-, road in Stanley Park   
VPL #5396, Philip Timms, 190-, road in Stanley Park  

Ghost Villages of Stanley Park
[April 27, 1988 (VM) Chris Arnett]
The native villages of Sxwayswey or Whoi Whoi at Lumbermans Arch and Chaythoos, a little to the west, were occupied by the Squamish peoples long after contact. In the 1860s, as a result of the growing lumber industry in the Inlet, as many as 700 were living at Claythoos. By the next decade, most of the traditional plank houses with sloping roofs had been replaced by gabled western-style housing. Another settlement was the Pacific Islander Kanaka Ranch, at the foot of Denman Street. Most squatters were evicted in the 1920's and the last squatter's house was torn down in 1963. (see Jean Barman's Stanley Park's Secret, the forgotten families of Whoi Whoi, Kanaka Ranch and Brockton Point, Harbour Publishing, 2005)

VPL #33394, Otto Landauer, 1924, Leonard Frank  
VPL #33394, Otto Landauer, 1924, Leonard Frank  

Leonard Frank: Professor of the Black Box with the Magic Eye
[May 25, 1988 (AGM at VM) Cyril Leonoff]
German born Leonard Frank (1871-1944) came to Vancouver via California and Alberni, where he opened a general store in 1895. It was in Alberni that he began his photographic career recording native and non-native life. A 1910 book of Frank's photographs brought him wider recognition and by 1916 he had become an established photographer moving to Vancouver set up a business. He photographed nature for governments and private corporations and his work was seen in Saturday Night, the New York Times, and National Geographic. He was buried in the Tzedeck cemetery in Vancouver. (see The Greater Vancouver Book, 820; The Encyclopedia of British Columbia, 269-70; see also

Bicentenary of Meare's Voyages to the Northwest Coast of America
[September 28, 1988 (VM) Tomas Bartroli]
John Meares (1756-1809) served in the British Navy before becoming interested in fur trading expeditions to the Northwest Coast. On his first voyage to the Coast in 1786, he became icebound and lost half of his crew. On the second voyage of 1788, he purchased or leased some land at Nootka Sound to house part of his crew who stayed behind to build a ship. In 1789, he waited in Canton for news of his vessels, two of which were seized by the Spanish who claimed Nootka as theirs. He wrote a book on his exploits, some details of which appear exaggerated. (Nokes, J. Richard, Almost a Hero: The Voyages of John Meares, R. N., to China, Hawaii and the Northwest Coast, Washington State University Press, 1998; see also

The Search for the Tynemouth Women
[October 26, 1988 (VM) Jo Dunaway]
In the 1860's, the SS Tynemouth left England on what was to be a rough, mutinous 99-day voyage for Victoria with passengers that included approximately sixty women destined to make a new life as wives in the largely male populated province of British Columbia. Finding upon their arrival that conditions were not what they expected, some opened their own businesses, other taught music, while others were forced to take domestic positions. Within fifteen months of their arrival, only seventeen out of sixty had married, many seemingly seeking an independent life. (see The Encyclopedia of British Columbia, 724)

VPL #1798, unknown, 1919, view, Hastings Park  
VPL #1798, unknown, 1919, view, Hastings Park  

Hastings: the Forgotten Park
[November 23, 1988 (VM) Patricia Coutts & Guy Faint]
Hastings Park (Exhibition Park) was granted to the city by the province in the 1880s “as a park for the recreation and enjoyment of the public” with Vancouver City retaining control. It was logged and developed while Stanley Park flourished because of differing perceptions of park needs on the east and west sides of the city. In 1987 the Hastings Park Restoration Society was formed with visions of returning the PNE occupied land back into parkland. (see The Greater Vancouver Book, 87, 141)

VPL #7334, Philip Timms, 1915, Maple Leaf Theatre poster  
VPL #7334, Philip Timms, 1915, Maple Leaf Theatre poster  

War and Charity: The Remarkable History of the International Red Cross
[January 25, 1989 (VM) John Hutchinson]
The guidelines for the Red Cross movement were set out by the Geneva Convention in 1864 after Swiss businessman Henri Dunant had become appalled by the conditions of warfare. The Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71 tested the new Red Cross and exposed the weaknesses of the Geneva Convention: armbands were worn by spies and Red Cross flags were used to protect ammunition dumps. There were fewer complaints in the Russo-Turkish war of 1877-78 and in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 the Japanese paid great attention to hygiene and uncontaminated drinking water. Since 1919, the Red Cross has emphasized civilian rather than wartime relief. (see

VPL #7482, Philip Timms, 19--, Interurban at Hastings Park  
VPL #7482, Philip Timms, 19--, Interurban at Hastings Park  

The B. C. Electric Railway Company
[February 22, 1989 (VM) Henry Ewert]
Vancouver streetcars began in June 1890. City lines ceased on April 24, 1955 while Interurban lines ceased February 28, 1958. The streetcars were part of an excellent system with a total of 540 passenger cars at their peak. As late as 1945, 346 cars covered 300 route miles along the Lower Mainland lines. (see Henry Ewert's The Story of the B. C. Electric Railway Company, Whitecap Books, c.1986; see also

Early Teachers in British Columbia
[March 22, 1989 (VM) Jean Barman]
Before 1901, when teacher training began, one could become a teacher in British Columbia by passing provincial examinations. For women, it was sometimes the only choice for a profession and many stayed only a few years before marriage. For men, it was often a stepping stone to another career or a way to save money. Men with university degrees dominated the new high school staffs while women made up the great majority of Normal School (teacher training school) students after its 1901 founding. (see Jean Barman's Growing up British in British Columbia: Boys in Private School, UBC Press, 1984 and Barman et al, Children, Teachers and Schools in the History of British Columbia, Detselig, 1995)

The Accidental Airline, the Story of the Queen Charlotte Airlines
[April 26, 1989 (VM) Jim Spilsbury]
Forced by the Second World War to stop using boats to sell and fix radios at coastal logging camps, Mr. Spilsbury was forced to buy an airplane. With partner, Jim Hepburn, he established Queen Charlotte Airlines. By 1949, QCA had become the third largest airline in Canada and its planes comprised Norsemen, Ansons, PBYs and DC3s. It was later sold to Pacific Western Airlines. (see Jim Spilsbury and Howard White's The Accidental Airline, Harbour Publishing, c. 1988; for old QCA timetables see

Shamans and Sea-Serpents: Rock Art of Indian Arm
[May 24, 1989 (VM) Chris Arnett]
Native coastal paintings done by the Tseleuet and Squamish nations in the Burrard Inlet and Indian Arm area, were probably done largely by shamans on their spiritual quest, though some represent historical and cosmic events. The recurring motifs were of stickmen, a one-legged spirit, and spiraling serpents, dating from perhaps 1795. They were all done on large, vaulting cliffs in natural hematite (an iron oxide mineral). Some are becoming worn and faded, victims of natural wear while others are suffering from vandalism. (also see Annie York, Richard Daly and Chris Arnett's They write their dream on the rock forever: rock writings of the Stein River Valley of British Columbia, Talonbooks, 1993)

Anglo-Spanish Clash at Nootka in 1789
[September 27, 1989 (VM) Tomas Bartroli]
The Anglo-Spanish clash at Nootka in 1789 involved protagonists Spaniard Estéban José Martinez and Englishman James Colnett who arrived at Nootka Sound on the Argonaut. Americans, in the presence of John Kendrick on the Columbia, also played a part. A convention of 1794, a dismantling of the Spanish fort, and an agreement to open the area to trade, settled the dispute. (see Tomas Bartroli's Brief presence: Spain's activity on America's northwest Coast, 1774-1796, author, c.1991)

VPL #3542, unknown, 19--, men working at Sweney Cooperage  
VPL #3542, unknown, 19--, men working at Sweney Cooperage  

Centennial of Sweeney Cooperage in False Creek
[October 25, 1989 (HRMPA) Edward C. Sweeney]
Originally begun in Victoria in 1889, the Sweeney Cooperage moved to False Creek around WWI. Turning out barrels for a variety of products, branches were opened in Seattle, Portland and Montreal with 320 employees producing 2000 barrels a day, making the cooperage the largest in the British Empire. It shared False Creek with 17 sawmills until the late 1960s and was demolished in 1981 to make way for EXPO 86. (The Greater Vancouver Book, 839)

The Stein River Valley: The Historical Component of an Environmental Issue
[November 22, 1989 (HRMPA) Wendy Wickwire]
The unique Stein River valley, traversed by native people, trappers and missionaries, has been in danger of being logged. R. Michael McGonigle and Wendy Wickwire's Stein: The Way of the River (Talonbooks, 1988), has drawn attention to the valley and has helped to save it from logging. (Since 1995 it has been a Heritage Park.) (also see

VPL #15981, Leonard Frank, 1929, barrels inside United Distillers Ltd.  
VPL #15981, Leonard Frank, 1929, barrels inside United Distillers Ltd.  

From No Control to Government Control: Liquor in British Columbia
[January 24, 1990 (HRMPA) Robert A. Campbell]
In 1917, because of the rampant destructiveness of alcohol, private sales of liquor in BC were banned. Enforcement was difficult as people found ways to get alcohol into saloons. In 1920 the people were given the choice between prohibition and the sale of liquor in government stores. They chose the latter. To balance the hypocrisy of making money on liquor, the government took a hard line on public drinking and banned all amenities in beer parlours until approximately the 1970s. (see Robert Campbell's Demon Rum or Easy Money: Government Control of Liquor in B. C. from Prohibition to Privatization, Carleton University Press, 1991)

Holbrook & Ladner: Two Pioneers of BC
[February 28, 1990 (HH) Jacqueline Gresko]
Henry Holbrook (1820-1902), who came to BC before 1859, established himself in New Westminster with a variety of businesses. He was intermittently mayor and a member of the legislature when BC joined Canada. His sympathy for the natives was not reflected in the terms of union and he died in England.
William Henry Ladner (1826-1907) began working in the Fraser Canyon mines around 1859 and settled in the Delta area. He entered politics and did much to build the infrastructure of the area. (see Jacqueline Gresko's entry into the Dictionary of Canadian Biography)

VPL #18678, Philip Timms, nd, Point Atkinson lighthouse  
VPL #18678, Philip Timms, nd, Point Atkinson lighthouse  

Lightkeeping on the North coast: Romance & Reality
[March 28, 1990 (HH) Don Graham]
For people like the Codvilles of Pointer Island, life as a lighthouse keeper was hard. Husband and wife were expected to man the lights 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Supplies came in once or twice a year. (see Donald Graham's Keepers of the Light: A History of British Columbia's Lighthouses and Their Keepers, Harbour, 1985 and Lights of the Inside Passage: a history of British Columbia's lighthouses and their keepers, Harbour, 1986; see also

VPL #6674, Philip Timms, 190-, streetcar on 600 block West Hastings  
VPL #6674, Philip Timms, 190-, streetcar on 600 block West Hastings  

Early Streetcars in Vancouver
[April 6, 1990 (HH) Brian Kelly]
Greater Vancouver was much ahead of the game in its early years of public transport when it scored many firsts. (see Heather Conn and Henry Ewert's Vancouver's Glory Years; public transit, 1890-1915, Whitecap, c.2003; also

Growing Old: Women in English Canada 1919-1939
[April 25, 1990 (HH) Veronica Strong-Boag]
In the Victorian age of the 19th Century there was an emphasis on morality and so older women were seen as stable, energetic and mature having worked for the vote and prohibition. In the flapper age of the 1920s and 1930s, there was an emphasis on youth, appearance and image and so an entirely different attitude towards older women. See the book of the same name. (see Veronica Strong-Boag's New Day Recalled: Lives and Girls and Women in English Canada, 1919-1939, Copp Clark Pitman, c.1988)

History Through Archaeology, Rocky Mountain Fort and the Late 18th Century Fur Trade
[May 23, 1990 (HH) Dr. David Burley]
Historical archaeology helps to clarify biases in the written record. Artifacts from Rocky Mountain Fort, established in the Peace River district in 1794, helped reveal what life was like. Metal, axes, pipes, trade beads, etc. clarified the living habits of those at the post as well as pointed to trade routes. Further digs at the old Fort St. John post revealed an area over hunted and uneconomical. (see David Burley, Scot Hamilton and Knut R. Fladmark's Prophecy of the swan: the Upper Peace River fur trade of 1799-1823, UBC Press, c.1996)

VPL #84815, Artray Studios, 1947, B. C. Coast shipwreck  
VPL #84815, Artray Studios, 1947, B. C. Coast shipwreck  

Shipwreck Searches in BC Waters
[September 27, 1990 (HH) Michael Paris]
Before members of the Underwater Archaeological Society of British Columbia dive, extensive research is required on all the details of a target vessel. While exploring shipwrecks, cold murky water, turbulent currents and entangling skeins of kelp are some of the hazards they face. Through their dedication, the 250 members of the society are contributing to BC's maritime history. (see

Wall Chart Project
[October 24, 1990 (HH) Bruce Macdonald]
From maps, it can be seen that BC's first logging camp operated at Jericho Beach in the 1860's, and today's Valley Drive was the logging mainline into the forest. Further research shows many civic and provincial politicians of the day as the first urban land speculators. (see Bruce Macdonald's Vancouver: a visual history, Talonbooks, 1992)

Preservation of the Lillooet Gold Rush Trail
[October 24, 1990 (HH) Charles Hou and students from Burnaby North Secondary]
From 1858 to 1865, 30,000 gold prospectors streamed along the Harrison-Lillooet Gold Rush Trail from Port Douglas to Lillooet and the goldfields beyond. Sections of original trail are being staked with mining claims, while logging and powerline alignments add to the destruction. (see

Letters of Emily Carr
[November 28, 1990 (HH) Doreen Walker]
Emily Carr's prolific letter writing was an emotional outlet and helped her sort out her thoughts and feelings. She wrote in fits and starts to important personalities in the province even after her first 1937 heart attack slowed her. Her love of nature, warmth and intolerance can be seen in a book on the subject. (see Doreen Walker's Dear Nan: letters of Emily Carr, Nan Cheney and Humphrey Toms, UBC Press, 1990; see also

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